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Table of contents
  1. Shaders
    1. Disclaimer
    2. Overview
    3. Materials
      1. Common material definition fields
    4. Troubleshooting
      1. Shader doesn’t change
      2. Compilation error
      3. Couldn’t find constant buffer named: $Globals
    5. Tips and tricks
      1. Passing variables to shader
      2. Using time in shader
      3. Camera direction towards the entity
      4. Debugging values


The way to create shaders described in this page is not working on consoles (PS4, Xbox, Switch) and in new rendering engine (renderdragon, which is in the newest Windows version beta).


Shaders are divided into 2 folders: glsl and hlsl. For shaders to work on every device, you need to code shaders in both languages. For testing on Windows, hlsl is enough. When rewriting shaders from one language to another, there are few things to change, like HLSL float3 is vec3 in GLSL. Mapping between those languages can be found here


Vertex, fragment and sometimes geometry shaders are combined with some options as materials and are required for custom shaders. To create new material, you need to create file, which matches the name of .material file in vanilla resource pack. For example: materials/particles.material. Materials support inheritance by adding parent material after colon. For example: entity_alpha:entity_base

Common material definition fields

Field name Description Example value Notes
vertexShader Path to the shader relative to hlsl/glsl folder   For HLSL shader, .hlsl suffix is added.
fragmentShader Path to the shader relative to hlsl/glsl folder   For HLSL shader, .hlsl suffix is added.
vertexFields An array of fields passed to vertex shader   It’s better to copy this field from vanilla material.
variants An array of objects, which define variants of the material   It’s better to copy this field from vanilla material.
+defines An array of #define directives to add to the shader source   Useful for reusing shader, but changing some minor setting.
+states An array of states to enable ["Blending", "DisableAlphaWrite", "DisableDepthWrite"] For OpenGL implementation, this is equivalent to glEnable call.
-defines An array of #defines directives to remove from inherited +defines    
+samplerStates An array of objects, defining how texture at certain index is treated { "samplerIndex": 0, "textureFilter": "Point" } textureFilter specifies how to sample the texture and textureWrap specifies the behavior, when accessing outside of the texture dimensions.
msaaSupport Multisample anti-aliasing support Both  
blendSrc Specifies how the color source blending factors are computed One For OpenGL implementation, this is equivalent to glBlendFunc call.
blendDst Specifies how the color destination blending factors are computed One For OpenGL implementation, this is equivalent to glBlendFunc call.


  "materials": {
    "version": "1.0.0",
    "particle_debug": {
      "vertexShader": "shaders/particle_generic.vertex",
      "fragmentShader": "shaders/particle_debug.fragment",

      "vertexFields": [
        { "field": "Position" },
        { "field": "Color" },
        { "field": "UV0" }

      "+samplerStates": [
          "samplerIndex": 0,
          "textureFilter": "Point"

      "msaaSupport": "Both"

For all the details about material file and possible field values, check material file json schema.


Shader doesn’t change

Every time there is a change in the shader, you need to completely restart Minecraft to recompile the shader.

Compilation error

When there is a shader compilation error, usually there is a line number specified, where the error occurred. You need to check few lines above the one specified in error, because before compilation, Minecraft adds #define directives

Couldn’t find constant buffer named: $Globals

I couldn’t accurately find the actual cause of this error, but it seems to be somehow connected to global variables. Removing them (initializing them in main function or changing them to #define directives) seems to fix the problem.

Tips and tricks

Passing variables to shader

You can pass variables to the shader from a particle, or an entity by changing entity color. Input color is clamped to <0.0, 1.0>. To pass bigger values, you need to divide by max value (or at least by some big number).

Using time in shader

TIME variable is number of seconds as float and is global for all shaders. For time based on particle lifetime, you need to pass this:

"minecraft:particle_appearance_tinting": {
    "color": ["variable.particle_age/variable.particle_lifetime", 0, 0, 1]

Then in shader, use PSInput.color.r as time, where 0.0 is particle birth and 1.0 is particle death.

Camera direction towards the entity

For entity shaders, you can make the shader dependent on camera direction towards the entity.

  • Add to PS_Input in vertex and fragment shader new field
    float3 viewDir: POSITION;
  • After that, add to vertex shader this line
    PSInput.viewDir = normalize((mul(WORLD, mul(BONES[VSInput.boneId], float4(VSInput.position, 1)))).xyz);
  • In fragment shader use PSInput.viewDir to make changes depending on camera rotation

Debugging values

The easiest way to debug a value is to turn it into color and render it like this

PSOutput.color = float4(PSInput.uv, 0., 1.);

This should create a red-green gradient, showing that the values of uv are between <0, 0> and <1, 1>.

For more advanced debugging, you can use the debug shader I wrote based on this shader. Right now this shader will display values of the color passed to the shader. To display another value, change line 70 in hlsl shader to

int ascii = getFloatCharacter( cellIndex, <float4 vector here> );

GLSL version of debug shader may crash Minecraft, use only for debugging.

Download debug shader